Green Woodpeckers by Harry Appleyard, Howe Park Wood 11 April 2016
With each peck, woodpeckers absorb more than ten times the force it would take to give a human a concussion. But they seem fine. Researchers examined the brains of woodpeckers in museum collections and saw that the brains showed a build-up of a protein that’s a sign of brain damage in humans. The woodpeckers might not have sustained brain damage themselves, though — the researchers think that protein build-up could possibly be beneficial to the birds.
It’s a summer night near a forest lake in Germany and something unnatural is going on. Beyond the dark waters lapping at the shores, a faint glow emanates from rings of light hovering above the surface. Nearby, bobbing red torchlights — the least-disruptive part of the visible spectrum — betray the presence of scientists on the shoreline. They are testing what happens when they rob the lake creatures of their night.
The bobbing white blooms of snowdrops fluttering on the road verge or carpeting the woodland floor put a spring in the step of us all during the bitter winter months. Their early appearance and dazzling petals make them a firm favourite with nature lovers and wildflower watchers across the United Kingdom. But despite their soaring popularity, some of the snowdrop’s charms remain swaddled under snow.
This is a free event, the museum does however collect entry donations if you so wish. You can meet the members of the Bucks Geology Group, who’d like to encourage you to bring your own mystery fossils or interesting pieces of rock to see if we can help you with identification or pointers on where to start. Displays include specimens from here in Bucks from the Museum’s collections, some of which are not normally on public display so it’s a great chance to see them in the flesh, as well as some more exotic minerals and all manner of other geological artefacts.
The Museum is sited in the heart of old Aylesbury in Church Street. HP20 2QP. More information is available of the website at www.buckscountymuseum.org
The report by People’s Trust for Endangered Species (PTES) and the British Hedgehog Preservation Society (BHPS), indicates worrying declines of Hedgehogs in our countryside, but paints a slightly happier picture about urban areas.
With the help of pioneering supercomputer simulations, scientists have made a tantalising breakthrough to understanding how black holes interact with space-time.Black holes are known for gobbling particles and light with their colossal gravitational effects, but there is a mysterious material that does manage to escape their maw. Known as “relativistic jets”, they shoot out from black holes across millions of light years.
Beak deformities in wild birds are unusual, with fewer than one in 200 adult birds thought to be affected. However, a number of reports from BTO Garden BirdWatchers have caught our eye and we are keen to find out more about the deformities being seen in British and Irish gardens.
Blackbird with decurved upper mandible
Please participate in our Big Garden Beak Watch survey to help us find out more!
Before they return to Iceland in April or early May, wintering Black-tailed Godwits have got a lot of extra feeding to do, both to fuel their journeys north and to undertake a complete change of body feathers. The grey plumage that has protected them since the autumn is discarded, to be replaced by summer finery. Although more colourful, these feathers provide cryptic camouflage in the habitats in which the birds nest – and they have less odour too.
Waders breeding in Chukotka, in the north-east corner of Russia, have a long way to travel at the end of the summer, in search of suitable habitats in which to spend the non-breeding season. A new study, using geolocators, shows that Ringed Plovers from this area fly between 8,900 and 12,100 km each autumn and in a very different direction to most other shorebirds that breed in the same area.
Between July and December 2014 the BTO ran the Garden Rook Survey to see what we could learn about different aspects of Rook behaviour. Here we reveal what we found, some fantastic anecdotes, and what’s next.
Linford Lakes Nature Reserve visitors enjoying an Open Sunday
Open Sunday at Linford Lakes NR 18 February2018 10:00-16:00hrs.
Tea and coffee, home-made cakes available.
Second-hand books on sale as well as crafts and bird seed.
Rick Simpson will be at LLNR on Sunday 18th Feb.
Rick and Elis Simpson run a charity, Wader Quest, to help conserve waders around the world.
As part of their fund-raising Rick and Elis will be at LLNR selling
Raffle tickets for a unique oil painting. The draw for the winner is to take place at the end of April.
Sam and Si head pond-side to see some of the best aerial carnivores in action – dragonflies. Using a little plastic toy – they capture a stunning shot of a dragonfly going head to head with a Lego man! Sam explains what’s behind their amazing pilot skills as Si gets more stunning high speed footage.
Linford Lakes Nature Reserve showing observation deck by Peter Hassett
Presentation from Andy Harding:
‘What’s flying tonight – the moths of an English country garden’
Over 320 species of large moths found in an Old Stratford garden.
The talk covers the life cycle of moths, differences from butterflies, numbers, camouflage, differences between the sexes, strange names and the importance of accurate moth recording. However it is a light-hearted, hopefully humorous talk, illustrated by 85 pictures, to promote an appreciation of this amazingly varied and wonderful group of insects.
Date: Wednesday 21st February 2018 Time: Doors open 19:00hrs for 19:30 hrs start.
Location: Linford Lakes Nature Reserve
Tickets: £3.50 for adults, no booking required.
Longhorn beetle (Stranglia maculata) by Peter Hassett Silverdale 18 July 2009
The Longhorn Beetle Recording Scheme collates records for beetles in family Cerambycidae. The scheme (under the name Cerambycidae Recording Scheme) has been running since 1982, and published an atlas in 1999.
Scientists have found reserves of “water ice” on Mars, a discovery which makes human visitation to the planet much more viable. The reserves were found around the mid-latitudes of Mars, with images of the planet revealing bands of blue material – assumed to be water ice – emerging from between eroded cliffs.
One of the joys of being a father is being able to drive your family to distraction. Few habits annoy mine more than me using my mobile phone to jot down the birds I see and hear on walks and then send the data to the British Trust for Ornithology’s BirdTrack.
It was July 10, 2016 when Dan Lane, Fernando Angulo, Jesse Fagan, and I rolled into the coffee-growing town of Flor de Café in north-central Peru. This town lies in the Cordillera Azul—a picturesque series of outlying Andean ridges hardly explored by ornithologists. In fact, the first ornithological inventory in the region was only in 1996, when a team of researchers from the Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science (LSUMNS), bushwhacked into the extremely remote eastern Cordillera Azul. It was on this expedition that Dan, then a beginning graduate student at LSU, discovered the distinctive Scarlet-banded Barbet (Capito wallacei) on “Peak 1538”. Now, twenty years later, we were back to see this iconic species, which graces the cover of the Birds of Peru field guide.
Snowdrops by Harry Appleyard , Tattenhoe 4 February 2017
Snowdrops are appearing, but in recent years they have become so popular it’s led to snowdrop bulbs being stolen from the wild and from gardens to sell on the black market. This is part of a much wider trend. From the theft of snowdrops and bluebells to rare orchids and ferns, stealing plants is a problem that goes largely unreported, but it’s a crime that can have disastrous impacts on plant populations.
A recent study on spider silk is providing promising possibilities for the way hearing aid microphones will be able to manage background noise — and may even change the way you look at the eight-legged creatures the next time you encounter one. The fiber they spin could be the future of directional microphone technology in hearing aids, improving the quality of sound wearers experience across all frequencies.
Rewilding Europe regularly organises webinars for members of the European Rewilding Network (ERN) to discuss rewilding related topics and share insight and experience. The network currently boasts 61 members from 26 countries across Europe.
This latest webinar saw members come together to discuss the Circle of Life project, which aims to increase the availability of carrion in nature for the benefit of Europe’s scavengers. Rewilding Europe and Dutch NGO ARK Nature have recently published the Circle of Life brochure, which provides readers with ecological insight and practical ways of bringing back the close relationship between carrion and scavengers.
Four years ago a group of German entomologists reported that there had been a huge reduction in the biomass of insects caught using Malaise traps sited in 63 German nature reserves since 1989 (Sorg et al., 2013). This shocking observation went almost unnoticed until a reanalysis of the data appeared recently (Hallmann et al., 2017). The latter paper generated a flurry of media activity and the phrase “Ecological Armageddon” swiftly circled the globe. Although not denying the decline reported, there are a number of caveats that should be considered when reading the two papers; the data are based on biomass, not species, the sites were not sampled continuously and are not globally representative (Saunders, 2017). The authors of the German study were not able to link the observed decline to climate change or pesticide use; although agricultural intensification and the practices associated with it, were, however, suggested as likely to be involved in some way. The link between habitat, insect diversity and abundance has been recognised for more than a century as illustrated by the following quotation,
The BTO longevity record for a wader is held by an Oystercatcher that was ringed as a chick by Adrian Blackburn in Lincolnshire (east coast of England) on 14 June 1970 and last caught by the Wash Wader Ringing Group on 16 July 2010, in virtually the same bit of the county. The time between ringing and last capture was 40 years 1 month and 2 days. Perhaps the bird is still alive?
Red-Tailed Bumblebee by Harry Appleyard, Tattenhoe 11 April 2016
Pollination is a complex process. It’s not as easy as an insect simply visiting a flower.
This is important to remember when talking about which species are the ‘best’ or ‘most important’ pollinators. Simply observing an animal visiting a flower is not, on its own, evidence that the animal is pollinating the flower.
More than just fox rescue: Dedicated to the Red Fox in the UK for over 25 years, The National Fox Welfare Society provide free mange treatment to householders feeding foxes in their gardens with Sarcoptic Mange and this alone means each and every year we don’t just help a few foxes, not even hundreds, but thousands! All foxes we rescue will be seen by a Veterinary Surgeon in the first instance and price is never put before the life of a fox.
It turns out mushrooms aren’t just great to eat – they played an essential role in creating an atmosphere suitable for animal life, according to a new study. The earliest plants to dwell on land did not have well developed roots or vascular systems. Fungi, among the earliest colonizers of land, helped facilitate the transfer of phosphorus from rocky soil to primitive plants, which required the mineral to photosynthesize. “The results of including data on fungal interactions present a significant advance in our understanding of Earth’s early development,” said Benjamin Mills, co-author of a report on the research published in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. “Our work clearly shows the importance of fungi in the creation of an oxygenated atmosphere.”
If you’re reading this site, it’s probably because you have at least a fleeting interest in nature. Yet wild flowers are not just disappearing from our countryside; they’re also vanishing from children’s lives and their language. The Oxford Junior Dictionary has been cutting out the names of common plants over the past few years, because children just don’t encounter or know bluebells and other wild plants any more.
We want to change this in 2018. Wild flowers are fascinating and magical, and children deserve to have their lives and understanding of the world enriched by meeting them.
The British Trust for Ornithology has published, the latest State of the UK’s Birds Report which highlights how our birds are doing. Some of our summer migrants are arriving earlier, the distributions of others are moving north and some are just beginning to colonise. The report is only possible due to the efforts of volunteers who take part in BTO surveys.
The BTO’s BirdTrends report is a one-stop shop for information about the population status of the common breeding birds of the wider UK countryside. The report is based on data gathered by the many thousands of volunteers who contribute to BTO-led surveys.
Scientists and many bird enthusiasts have long assumed that Bullfinches mate for several years, and perhaps even for life.
But believing and knowing are two different things. A professor emeritus at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) has 24 seasons of field observations that now confirm this is indeed true.
“Although guides and reference works have claimed that Bullfinches live as bonded pairs throughout the year and for life, this was based on assumptions,” says Professor Emeritus Olav Hogstad at NTNU’s Department of Natural History.
Natural England’s Long-term Monitoring Network project (LTMN) began in 2009 with the aim of developing, with our partners, a cost effective network of sites to provide evidence on the effects of changing climate, air pollution and land management on the natural environment. It is a set of intensively monitored sites across England, selected to cover the whole country and to include some of our most valuable habitats. LTMN extends and complements the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) which was established in 1992.
These are draft guides to genera or species groups of weevils. It is being tested; if you have any ideas for improving the design or content, please send them to email@example.com or @MarkGurn on Twitter. This is a guide to the genera or groups of weevils of Britain and Ireland.
Natural History Museum entomologist David Notton spotted an unknown single male Nomada facilis bee in his London garden last year, but has since uncovered examples in the Museum’s collection dating back to at least 1802.
The story has been reported by various organisations:
Melting glaciers have become the poster child of the symptoms of global warming. As temperatures rise, large bodies of ice around the poles are losing mass at an unprecedented rate, driving up sea levels and reducing feeding and breeding grounds for animals.Now, a new study has revealed these events are having another, significant impact. The weight of these glaciers is causing the bottom of the ocean to sink.
Now is a good time to reflect on both our achievements and our hopes and expectations. Rewilding Europe celebrated its fifth anniversary in 2017, and we can now add one more year to our initiative’s young history. The twelve highlight stories (presented below) demonstrate that last year was a hugely productive one for us, with more progress than ever and good traction in many areas of our work.
Between November 2015 and February 2016 an amazing 5,183 households across Britain and Ireland took part in our Goldfinch Feeding Survey to help us determine what it is about our gardens Goldfinches are attracted to. With households seeing an average of eight Goldfinches at a time, the survey highlighted the fact that the population of this colourful bird has been increasing in gardens and is now reported by 70% more Garden BirdWatch participants than twenty years ago.
16 Members of the Society joined our second Winter Walk at the RSPB Otmoor reserve in Oxfordshire. We were lucky to have a dry, calm afternoon, if rather overcast.
The reserve has just celebrated its 20th anniversary as the first land was purchased here by the RSPB in 1997 and the area of reserve has been consolidated and extended considerably since then.
One of the early tasks was the planting of an extensive reed bed, a back-breaking task as testified by members of the Society who helped to complete that planting! The aim was to encourage reed bed, specialists such as the Bittern, to move in and to increase availability of managed reed beds less vulnerable to rising sea-levels and coastal flooding.
It has certainly paid off as in 2013 the first booming bittern was heard and they have subsequently bred at the reserve. In 2015, Marsh Harriers bred successfully for the first time and in the same year a pair of cranes also attempted to breed in the reed bed. They have returned subsequently and it is hoped they will return again this year.
We began our walk by inspecting Brown Hairstreak eggs in the Blackthorn hedge near the car park, before checking out the feeders where a Marsh Tit showed well among the other tits and finches.
Moving on along the main track a Cetti’s Warbler was calling as we watched Marsh Harriers and flocks of Lapwing and Golden Plover overhead along with the occasional snipe.
During the afternoon, we saw at least 4 Marsh Harriers and some of the group were lucky enough to see a wintering Hen Harrier too. A visit to the hide rewarded some with sightings of a male Brambling and several Yellowhammers amid the mixed flock of Linnets, Reed Buntings and Chaffinches taking advantage of the seed scattered on the lane beside the hide.
Others made their way direct to the first screen, past big flocks of Wigeon, Golden Plover and Lapwing on the fields next to the track, to be in position for the arrival of the starlings at dusk and to spend some time watching the variety of ducks on the areas of open water.
The starlings didn’t disappoint! Soon after 4pm the flocks were gathering from all sides and gave us an excellent display before funnelling down into the reed bed in front of the screen. A great finale to the walk!
To see a short video of the brilliant murmuration (thank you Janice Robertson) click here.
Click on any of the pictures for a larger image.
Many thanks to Linda Murphy for leading the walk and providing the trip report.
Issue 6 of LifeCycle features articles on whoosh netting in your garden, spring trapping Red Kites and developing a nestbox project for Willow Tits. There is also a review of a new sexing and ageing guide for ducks, a tester’s view of Demography Online as well as details of how to get involved in a new research project on Blackcaps.
You may be most familiar with the flies that hover around your fruit basket or kitchen. But some of these insects have the most unusual lifestyles on Earth. There are the “thuggish” robber flies, capable of killing hummingbirds; the delicate and nearly invisible midges that pollinate cocoa plants; and an assortment of bot flies that can live under human skin, inhabit the stomachs of rhinos, or dwell in the nasal cavities of reindeer. Erica McAlister, senior curator at the Natural History Museum in London, affectionately refers to these flies as ‘snotbots.’
It is easy to dismiss the Blackbird as just another common, year-round, garden resident. But to do so would overlook some fascinating behaviours. Research, for example, has revealed that at least 12% of the Blackbirds present in Britain and Ireland during the winter are immigrants from elsewhere in Europe and, far from just feeding on fruit and earthworms, Blackbirds have even been observed to take tadpoles and newts from the shallows of garden ponds.
Water Rail by Mark Lynham, Linford Lakes NR 12 February 2017
For the first time, The Parks Trust will be marking International World Wetlands Day in 2018 with a number of special events.
2nd February 2018 is World Wetlands Day – commemorating the signing of the Ramsar Convention, the international accord on sustainable wetlands management in 1971. Wetlands are among the richest and most diverse wildlife habitats on earth and of course are crucial to human beings as well.
Here is the programme of the events being held between 1-3 February 2018:
Thursday 1st February:
Wetlands of the World talk. Biodiversity Officer Martin Kincaid will talk about conservation of important wetlands around the world, from the Pantanal to Willen Lake! Linford Lakes Study Centre. MK14 5AH. 7.30-9pm. £3 per person.
Friday 2nd February:
Guided Walk – Floodplain Forest Nature Reserve. 10.30am. Park at Manor Farm Court, Old Wolverton. MK12 5NN. Learn about the creation of Milton Keynes’ newest wetland nature reserve. £2 per person.
Guided Walk – Birdwatch at Caldecotte Lake. 10am. Park at car park off Monellan Crescent, South Caldecotte. MK7 8NA. A winter walk to see the variety of wildfowl and other winter birds. £2 per person.
Open Day – Linford Lakes Nature Reserve. 10am-2pm. Park at the reserve car park, off Wolverton Road, Great Linford. MK14 5AH. A rare chance to visit this first class nature reserve on a week day – specially opened for World Wetlands Day. The study centre will be open and the Friends of Linford Lakes will be on hand to serve tea, coffee and cakes. The four bird hides will be open with volunteers on hand to show visitors the wildlife.
Saturday 3rd February:
Guided Walk – Floodplain Forest Nature Reserve. 10.30am. Details as for 2nd Feb.
My interest in orchids started as a teenager, working in my school holidays on a nature reserve in the Chilterns, which at the time had more orchid species recorded there than at any other site in the UK. The diversity of orchids present there with their varied colours and floral structures was not only interesting in its own right but also inspired a broader interest in, and passion for, wild flowers that has continued with me to this day.
Though still a familiar garden bird, Greenfinch has declined by 59 per cent in the UK in just 10 years, prompting concerns for its status. The species was not classified as of conservation concern when the UK’s list was last updated in 2015 but, should the current rate of decline continue, it could be moved straight to the Red List in the next update. The decline is caused by a widespread and severe outbreak of a disease called trichomonosis, which was first noted affecting bird populations in 2006.
Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.
What you see is not what others see. We inhabit parallel worlds of perception, bounded by our interests and experience. What is obvious to some is invisible to others. I might find myself standing, transfixed, by the roadside, watching a sparrowhawk hunting among the bushes, astonished that other people could ignore it. But they might just as well be wondering how I could have failed to notice the new V6 Pentastar Sahara that just drove past.
The RSPB North Bucks Local Group are leading a field trip to Brixworth Country Park & Pitsford Dam, Northamptonshire
Location: Meet: car park (£3/day) off roundabout on A508 3 miles north of Northampton: SP 754 694
Postcode: NN6 9DG (Google map)
BRIXWORTH COUNTRY PARK & PITSFORD DAM, NORTHANTS
This deep end of Pitsford could hold divers, scarce grebes or winter duck such as scaup or smew. Country park has WC, shop, cafe and good paths.
Leader: Chris Coppock
Time: 10 am to 1 pm
Price: Parking £3 per day
See the RSPB North Bucks Local Group website for more information
MKNHS is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites. You should check details of any events listed on external sites with the organisers.
Male Willow Emerald Damselfly Tattenhoe Park Harry Appleyard 1st October
Just a decade ago, the Willow Emerald Damselfly had only been reliably recorded in the UK on 2 occasions, in 1979 and 1992. A single individual was then recorded in southeast Suffolk during 2007, followed in 2009 by a sudden boom of 400 records of the species from this same general area (SE Suffolk/NE Essex). Since this time, the Willow Emerald has spread rapidly across the south-east of England, gaining footholds in new counties on a yearly basis.
Male Blackcap by Harry Appleyard, Tattenhoe, 17 April 2016
Garden BirdWatch monitors the changing fortunes of birds and other garden wildlife through its network of ‘citizen scientists’. Observations collected by BTO Garden BirdWatchers are analysed by BTO researchers and published in leading journals. BTO Garden BirdWatchers have charted the decline of the House Sparrow, the rise of the Woodpigeon, have discovered that urban birds get up later than their rural counterparts and have alerted conservationists to the impact of an emerging disease in Greenfinches. Find out more about Garden BirdWatch.
The local branch of the RSPB is organising a trip to Poland 5 – 12 May 2018:
Collared Flycatcher, Hazel Grouse and Citrine Wagtail are just three of the exciting birds that we will look out for in this our second RSPB North Bucks Group foreign trip. Following our very successful trip to Extremadura earlier this year, I wanted to arrange something in complete contrast and yet just as rewarding for those of us who will go on this super journey.
It is not an RSPB holiday but has been designed exclusively for North Bucks Group members. No other parties will be with us.
Here are just some of the attractions to look forward to:
Search for 8 species of woodpeckers including three-toed, white-backed black woodpecker
Explore the primeval forests of Białowieza
Chance of encountering European bison & elk
Breeding aquatic warbler in the Biebrza Marshes
Citrine Wagtail, white-tailed eagle migrating waders at Siemianówka Reservoir
Watch lekking great snipe at dusk
Black, whiskered & white-winged terns
Look for pygmy owl at dusk
Around 150 species of bird typically recorded
The cost will be £1395 including pretty-well everything but, if twelve or more if us sign up, the cost will come down to £1295. If you would like a room to yourself, the single supplement will be just £195.
Please ask me if you want any further information. If you’re reading this from an e-mail, you can click here for the full itinerary. Otherwise, I have printed copies which I can send to you. I’m on 01908 563006 or e-mail me at firstname.lastname@example.org
When you’re ready to book, contact Paul Stanbury at Naturetrek 01962 733051 or e-mail him at email@example.com and he will tell you what to do next.
Male Willow Emerald Damselfly by Harry Appleyard, Tattenhoe Valley Park 14 October 2016
It is believed that Willow Emerald Damselflies began to colonise the UK around 2009, when reported sightings of the species began flooding in from south-east Suffolk and north-east Essex. Since then the species has been rapidly spreading across the south-east of England; thus, the Willow Emerald Watch was established to monitor its range expansion.
Lapwing by Peter Garner, Floodplain Forest NR, 25 March 2016
This article summarises a Bird Study paper arising from a 25-year Scottish study of breeding Lapwing, Oystercatcher, Redshank & Curlew. The story is set against a backdrop of a changing farming landscape.
Many of us will have hired a bird guide … and no doubt formed an opinion of their effectiveness!
But did you ever wonder what the guide thought of you? Rick, from locally based charity Wader Quest, will give us an entertaining insight into his experience as a bird guide – a talk illustrated mostly by Elis’ colourful photographs of spectacular Brazilian bird life.
Time: Doors open 7.15pm for a prompt 7.45pm start, ends at 10pm
Price: Group members £3, Non-group members £4, Children £1
See the RSPB North Bucks Local Group website for more information
MKNHS is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites. You should check details of any events listed on external sites with the organisers.
Steven Falk hast added his 2017 blowfly (Calliphoridae) photos to Flickr. Includes the rare Angioneura acerba (new to Warwickshire) which looks nothing like a blowfly.
The blowfly family contains the familiar bluebottles (Calliphora), greenbottles (Lucilia) and cluster flies (Pollenia) together with various other genera, some of which are very different looking such as the rhinophorid-like Eggisops pecchiolii and Melanomyia nana, and the fleshfly-like Eurychaeta palpalis.